I forgot to mention one funny thing in part 1 : a lot of people close to the Aran valley haven't a single clue about their roots and the meaning of the name "Aran". Well, in basque, "aran" means "valley" ! I very easily found basque toponyms and hydronyms almost everywhere in the Pyrenees, the last one I detected is IIRC only 37kms away from the Mediterranean Sea... So quite far away from the current Basque Country. It's not questionable that the basque extension was CONSIDERABLY wider in the past. I also found some toponyms looking amazingly ligurian, and they're usually located not so far away from known roman settlements. I wonder if those Romans were not in fact romanized Ligurians. Next step : the interpenetration of basque and ligurian toponymy seems so dense I can't imagine the two people/culture were not in contact and I wonder if some ligurian influence could be detected in some very specific basque vocabulary, probably related to mediterranean tree and flower species, animals, fishes, and fishing techniques. Anyway, time to cook dinner...